動物

全球最小墨西哥小頭鼠海豚僅剩30隻

世界自然基金會墨西哥辦事處主管奧馬爾·維達爾呼籲當局禁止在加利福尼亞上灣的所有捕魚行動。

科學家警告說,儘管墨西哥海軍協助警方在加利福利亞灣致力打擊非法捕撈活動,但世上最小的海豚——小頭鼠海豚目前在全球僅剩下約30隻,正處於滅絶的邊緣。

小頭鼠海豚國際保護委員會報告說,儘管有關當局採取保育措施並加強執法,但陷入滅絶邊緣的小頭鼠海豚現狀正在惡化。

報告稱,除非繼續嚴禁刺網捕撈並有效執法,否則按照目前的衰減率,小頭鼠海豚可能在2022年滅絶。

小頭鼠海豚國際保護委員會成員、墨西哥恩塞納達國家生態和氣候改變研究所專家羅雅斯-布拉喬對美國科學雜誌表示,”現在的狀況完全失控了”。

刺網捕撈是將長帶性的網列敷設於海中,使魚刺入網或被網衣纏繞後加以捕撈的捕撈方式。其長度短則幾十米,最長可達數千米。

總部設在英國的非政府組織”環境調查署”說,小頭鼠小頭鼠海豚遭遇困境的原因並非是直接的獵捕,而是受到間接傷害,它們被用於捕撈加州灣石首魚的非法刺網不加選擇地殺害。

由於香港和中國大陸對魚鰾不斷增長的需求,加州灣石首魚非法捕撈已經成為小頭鼠海豚所面對的最重要威脅(圖為香港海味街商店在街道展示的幹魚鰾)。

環境調查署去年發表報告說,由於香港和中國大陸對魚鰾不斷增長的需求,加州灣石首魚非法捕撈已經成為小頭鼠海豚所面對的最重要威脅。

魚鰾通常被稱為是”魚膠”或”魚肚”。跟其它諸如魚翅、鮑魚和海參等海產品一樣,幹魚鰾在中國具有很高市場價值。走私者將非法捕撈的加州灣石首魚製成魚鰾,並運至香港或中國大陸出售。

石首魚科物種的魚膠,比如加州灣石首魚的魚膠在中國南方和香港通常被稱為”金錢膠”,因其據稱能治療循環和皮膚問題而受到追捧,有關需求使其在黑市上被炒至天價。

環境調查署報告曾表示,”金錢膠”的黑市價格在2014年達到頂峰,但2015年因市場供大於求而價格有所下降,但庫存魚膠貿易仍在繼續,中大型標本仍可賣出超過5萬美元的天價。

羅雅斯-布拉喬表示,亞洲市場對魚膠的需求太大,因此無法對非法刺網捕撈實施控制(圖為香港海味商店出售的魚翅和魚膠)。

羅雅斯-布拉喬表示,亞洲市場對魚膠的需求太大,因此無法對非法刺網捕撈實施控制。他甚至表示,犯罪團伙現在已控制了加州灣石首魚的非法捕撈。

小頭鼠海豚國際保護委員會報告說,據對墨西哥西北部上加利福利亞灣聲學數據的分析顯示,截至去年11月,小頭鼠海豚的存活數量約為30隻。

據小頭鼠海豚國際保護委員會在1997所做的調查,該委員會認為小頭鼠海豚當年約有567隻個體。據2015年9月至12月的統計數據顯示,小頭鼠海豚的種群數量約為60隻。2012年和2014年,其數量分別為200隻和100隻。

該委員會為此在2014年發出警告說:”小頭鼠海豚正處於迫在眉睫的滅絶危險中。”

為了拯救小頭鼠海豚,科學家已宣佈捕獲小頭鼠海豚作為樣本並進行人工養殖的計劃,捕獲的小頭鼠海豚將被放在加利福利亞灣進行養殖。

但有環保人士反對這個計劃,因為小頭鼠海豚可能在被捕獲或養殖的過程中死亡。

美國海軍海洋哺乳動物小組爆炸物處理分隊潛水員在訓練海豚,捕獲僅存的小頭鼠海豚。

當發現目標後,海豚將觸摸海軍小艇上的一個板子,提醒潛水員已發現目標。

小頭鼠海豚國際保護委員會成員羅雅斯-布拉喬對法新社表示,科學家希望在10月捕獲小頭鼠海豚。

科學雜誌文章說,海軍訓練員透過發言人表示,他們將使用操作性調節技術來教海豚發現小頭鼠還豚的所在位置。他們將教還豚透過聲納尋找”充氣肺”。當發現目標後,它們將觸摸海軍船隻的一個板子,提醒潛水員已發現目標。

他說,”非法捕撈仍在繼續,如果我們不能捕獲小頭鼠海豚,他們就會死去”。

該委員會最新報告說,2016年10月至11月,墨西哥當局查獲了105件,並扣留了85件非法和遺棄的捕撈漁具。

墨西哥海軍協助警方在加利福利亞上灣打擊非法捕撈活動。

非政府組織”環境調查署”去年公布的報告顯示,自墨西哥政府在2014年在加利福利亞灣設立為期兩年的刺網捕魚禁區以來,該國海軍已部署愈千人員,他們查獲或扣留了122艘小船、77人和20輛車。

當局還查獲並扣留了79件加州灣石首魚樣本、 177件加州灣石首魚魚鰾、600個刺網或漁具以及 4艘更大的船舶。

科學家過去多年一直警告說,小頭鼠海豚的生存取決於消除因捕撈小蝦、魚和鯊魚所設置的刺網和圍網導致的誤捕。

環境調查署去年發表報告說,由於香港和中國大陸對魚鰾不斷增長的需求,加州灣石首魚非法捕撈已經成為小頭鼠海豚所面對的最重要威脅。

小頭鼠海豚國際保護委員會呼籲永久禁止所有的刺網捕撈。

2016年10月至11月,墨西哥當局查獲了105件,並扣留了85件非法和遺棄的捕撈漁具(墨西哥海軍陸戰隊員在聖費利佩海邊參與打擊非法捕撈,逮捕非法捕撈加州灣石首魚的人員)。

2015年,墨西哥總統涅托下令部署海軍參與打擊非法捕撈活動,當局並加強了對小頭鼠海豚保護區的執法,並在在加利福利亞灣設立為期兩年的刺網捕魚禁區。

小頭鼠海豚又被稱為加利福利亞灣碼頭鼠海豚。成年小頭鼠海豚個體長約1.5米,體重55千克,它是鼠海豚科中最小的成員。其眼睛和嘴巴周圍的明顯深色斑塊使它成為最標誌性的鯨類動物之一,被稱為”海中的熊貓”,但在野外很難見到它。

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